Genu Varum and Genu Valgum
It is a 'O' shape of lower limbs.
A slight genu varum is not a bad thing, and footballers have all a genu varum, which optimizes the center of gravity while running). Degenerative arthritis is more related to the quality of bone and cartilage (family history of degenerative arthritis) than to the genu varum per se.
The axis of lower limbs changes during growth going from a large varum to a slight valgum before normalizing to adult values around 6 year-old.
Correction can be performed gradually with external fixators or acutely with intramedullary nails. As the nail technique is very demending for the Know-How, a very few team can propose it.
We offer it to our patients, even in large deformity cases.
Pictures: Left: a 16 year-old patient with a bone disease (meta-epiphyseal dysplasia) and a strong genu varum involving both femora and tibiae). Two surgeries could correct the entire deformity with small scars. Right: 16 year-old patient who combined a quadruple torsion syndrome with genu varum and genu recurvatum. Correction of all deformities solved her problem (pain at climbing up stairs and running).
Correction is performed with minimal scars, e.g. 6 mm for lower femur section in case of correction of the femur.
Legs are 'X' shaped. Similar correction techniques can be performed. However, at the tibial level, risks of tensioning the nerve requires a very high Know-How to know how much acute correction can be done using intramedullary nails.